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Peru Information

Location: in the western and intertropical South

Capital: Lima

Surface: 1'285, 216 square kilometers

Official Language: Spanish. Quechua is the legacy of the Inca Empire and is still spoken in many parts of the country mainly the Andes. The Amazon has 38 different languages

Spanish: 80%

Quechua: 16%

Other languages: 3%. It corresponds to the 38 different languages that are spoken in the Amazon area with more than 200 variants. Also is the Aymara which is spoken on the border with Puno.

Currency: Nuevo sol

Religion: Most of the population identified themselves as Catholic (86.0%), followed by Christian / Gospel (8.0%) other religions (3.3%)

Culture: Peruvian culture has been influenced by different traditions: Amerindian and Spanish also Africa, Asia and Europe.

Music: The music of Peru is the result of the fusion through many centuries. There are many music genres Peru: Creole, Andean and Amazonian music. These can be classified into music and dances from the Peruvian coast, Peruvian Andes and Peruvian Amazon.

Limits: Bordered on the north by Ecuador and Colombia on the east by Brazil on the southeast by Bolivia on the south by Chile, and on the west by the Pacific Ocean.

Climate: The average temperature Costa is always soft and nice and almost never rains. In the Highlands the temperature is cool with some colder areas, but is generally bearable temperatures with a rainy season that extends beyond December to April. In the Jungle Amazon Region always makes heat and rains almost all year. The influence of the Andes and the Humboldt Current attach great climatic diversity to the Peruvian territory.

The central coast and south have a subtropical arid or desert, with an average temperature of 18 ° C and annual rainfall of 150 mm. In contrast, the north coast has a tropical dry climate, with an average temperature above 24 ° C and rainfall during the summer. When the El Niño occurs, the average temperature rises along the coast, with highs above 30 ° C and rainfall increases significantly in the north and central coast.

In the mountains there are two climates: temperate sub-humid in areas between 1,000 and 3,000 meters above sea level, with temperatures around 20 ° C and rainfall between 500 and 1,200 mm a year, cold weather between 3,000 and 4,000 m , with average annual temperatures of 12 ° C and frost during winter or puna frigid climate, in areas between 4,000 and 5,000 meters, with an average temperature of 6 ° C and annual rainfall of 700 mm, and snow weather or icy in areas above 5,000 m, with temperatures below 0 ° C and snowfall.

In the forest there are two types of weather: humid subtropical climate in the high forest, with rainfall higher than 2,000 mm per year and average temperatures around 22 ° C, and humid tropical climate in the lowlands, with rainfall range of 2,000 mm per year and average temperatures of 27 ° C.

Peru is one of the most biologically diverse countries in the world and major mineral resources. It consists of diverse landscapes: valleys, plateaus and high peaks of the Andes are deployed west to the desert coast and the Amazon to the east. Peru is crossed from south to north by Andes; this gives it a rich variety of climates and ecosystems. Peru is within the seven most diverse countries on the planet in the 3rd position. , You can find 84 of the 107 life zones that exist in the world. The country is home to over 400 species of mammals, 300 reptiles, 1,700 birds and more than 50,000 plants.

The Ancient Peru was the cradle of Andean civilization. Towards 3200 B.C. Caral-Supe emerged although it was not until the Chavín that followed the classic Andean civilizations such as the Moche Nazca and Huari. By the fifteenth century the Inca Empire spread across much of western South America until the Conquest in 1532 after which he established a Viceroyalty who was part of the Spanish Empire. The Spanish founded cities and imported African slaves so was configured Creole culture with Moorish elements, blacks and Indians.

Peruvian culture is diverse as a result of intense mixing in different degrees. To this is added the subsequent influence of nineteenth-century migrations from China Japan and Europe. The main spoken language is Spanish although a significant number of Peruvians speak different native languages the most widespread being the Southern Quechua. Peru is a developing country with a high human development index, but a marked economic inequality and a per capita income below the world average. Its main economic activities include export agriculture, fishing, mining and manufacturing of products such as textiles.

History

Ancient Peru

By the fourth millennium B.C., the village communities of the coast began a hierarchy that overlapped the tribal organization Then came the first signs of organized architecture, public and ceremonial buildings At the beginning of the third millennium B.C., emerged in the complex of Caral, the oldest civilization of the continent, 18 center of an extensive trade network that stretched from Ecuador to the jungle of Peru, which was involved extensive production of cotton and with a head linked to ceremonial worship Caral is contemporary to the civilizations of China, Egypt, India and Mesopotamia; respect of an area which can be considered as the cradle of civilization in the world because of its age, 5000 years.

Subsequently, was spread along the coast the Cupisnique culture whose ceremonial centers would swing up until the birth of Kuntur and Chavin. At the end of this period, the Chavin culture exerted enormous influence over others until its decline. Within the Moche by north and Nazca by south were developed the first states with permanent militia, linked to parts of top rated ceramic art of ancient Peru. In the far south, meanwhile, emerges Tiahuanaco as a dominant culture of the Altiplano. Later, the Huari culture developed the classical model of the Andean State with the rise of imperial court cities, model that spread through north to the eighth century. From the ninth century, after the abandonment of Huari, were set up new regional centralizers States along the Andes, such as Lambayeque, Chimu and Chincha, a period known as the Late Intermediate.

Among these domains emphasizes the one of the Incas, that by the fifteenth century annexed all Andean towns between the rivers Maule and Ancasmayo, with an area of nearly 3 million km ², today located in the territories of southern Colombia, the west of Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, northern Chile and northwestern Argentina, forming what is known as the Inca Empire. Its capital was Cuzco, located in the southern highlands of Peru. In addition to its military strength, stressed in architecture, with magnificent structures as the citadel of Machu Picchu. In 1532, the Inca Empire fell to the Spanish conquest conducted by Francisco Pizarro.

The conqueror found the Empire weakened by a civil war that began in 1529 between Huascar and Atahualpa, the two brothers’ imperial pretenders. In November 1532, Pizarro captured Atahualpa, and in July 1533, had him executed on charges of ordering the killing of his brother Huascar. Subduing the opposition, some relatively weak general Incas began the Spanish rule that established on the territory of the former Inca Empire, the most powerful viceroyalty Spain had overseas.

Conquest and colonial period

The Spanish Empire meant for Peru a deep social and economic transformation. Mercantilist system was implemented, supported by mining gold and silver, primarily, of Potosi, the commercial monopoly and the exploitation of indigenous labor under forced labor. No doubt that Cuzco was the chief city of the whole Tahuantinsuyo. By taking it the Spanish, the Inca resistance dwindled significantly, not only because there was the whole organization of the empire, but by the meaning it had for Inca armies see their capital taken and dominated by the Spanish.

The rebellion of Tupac Amaru II was lifting greater social and political impact of this era. On November 4, 1780, Tupac Amaru II managed to prepare a revolutionary movement that threatened the power of the monarchy. That night he took prisoner the corregidor Antonio Arriaga, who forced him to hand over real funds and then had him executed as punishment for his cruelty. Then managed to organize a considerable army of indigenous, in nearby Cuzco corregidores also met and organized an army that went in search of Tupac Amaru. Both armies met in the village of Sangarará, waged a brutal and bloody battle that Tupac Amaru II was victorious. In Cuzco, the May 18, 1781, is given a trial and sentenced to death along with the other leaders of the rebellion. First they tried to dismember him, where his limbs were tied to four horses, but failing, he was sent to behead. Indian uprisings were controlled by the Spanish monarchy, but they influenced future independence struggles.

Independence

In the nineteenth century came the Liberating South Stream led by Argentine General Jose de San Martin to wean mission to Peru. Acts of declaration, proclamation and oath of independence of Peru was held in Lima, between the months of July-August 1821. The proclamation was held on July 28, 1821, when the leader of the Liberating Expedition of Peru, the Argentine General José de San Martin proclaimed independence from four public squares and established a new state, the Republic of Peru.

Republican era

Once proclaimed independence, San Martín, assumed command of the military political free departments of Peru, under the title of Protector. Protectorate works contributed to the creation of the national library for knowledge, the approval of the national anthem, and the abolition of the mita for indigenous.

Regions

Coast

The coast of Peru is moderately hilly with many sandy beaches and cliffs, with limited presence of small bays, inlets, peninsulas, headlands, hills, guano islands, lagoons and an oasis, Huacachina. Peru has over 2000 km of coastline, characterized by a thin strip of desert, which represents 11% of the territory located between the Andean flanks and the Pacific Ocean. In the irrigated valleys of the north produces cotton, sugar cane and rice. In the south is grapes, olives and fruit. And there are also fisheries along the coast. Summer lasts from December to April, with temperatures from 25-35 ° C. During the winter, from May to November, temperatures drop a bit and are cloudier. The coast is divided into north coast, central coast and south coast.

Departments: Tumbes, Piura, Lambayeque, La Libertad, Ancash, Lima, Ica, Arequipa, Moquegua, Tacna

Highlands

Full of giant peaks, deep canyons and spectacular archaeological sites like Machu Picchu, Lost City of the Incas, or the formidable fortress of Kuelap, Chachapoyas culture, in the northern mountains. The highest peak is the Huascaran with 6740 mts. and there are others 20 peaks with hight of 6000 meters.

The difference in altitude between the high peaks and deep valleys generates various climates and a rich variety of animals and plants species. The Andean mountain range represents approximately 30% of the Peruvian territory. The world's deepest canyons Cotahuasi and Colca are located in the Department of Arequipa.

Of all the most outstanding Andean species are the llama, alpaca, guanaco, and vicuña. The last two are threatened species, so the state has created parks and reserves to protect them. The vicuña has the finest animal fiber known, tissue from it have good value in the international market.

The inhabitants of the highlands mostly speak the Quechua language and have a rich living culture, represented in its architecture, clothing, music, dance and other cultural events that visitors can see during their travels.

The range is divided into three branches from south to north: the Cordillera Occidental, central cordillera and the eastern cordillera Eastern or Amazon. The Eastern Cordillera is home to the greatest biodiversity in the country and one of the highest in the world. Different ecological zones are home to abundant wildlife.

Departments: Cajamarca, Huanuco, Pasco, Junin, Huancavelica, Ayacucho, Apurimac, Cuzco, Puno.

Amazon Rainforest

The proximity to the Andes and the limited human presence makes their forests the most biodiverse in the world. The Amazon represents over 70% of the Peruvian territory and is fully covered by the Amazon basin. The jungle department of Madre de Dios, is considered the world capital of biodiversity. This region still harbors nomadic native groups who have no contact with our world. In the jungle there are two distinct areas: The Amazonian lowland or plain, and the high forest which reaches up into the highlands.

The low jungle has as main characteristic the presence of large rivers, mighty forests and large trees that can exceed 40 meters in height, while the high forest is crossed by rivers and torrential clear water, deep valleys and gorges vegetation ranging from cloud forest at the highest (3000m) to the high forests of the plains (280 m.), the high forest is more rainy than the lowlands.

Studies show that the range of greatest concentration of biodiversity is between 500 and 1500 m. Wildlife is abundant; there are different species that are based on different ecological habitats. The Amazon rainforest of Peru is one of the most biologically diverse areas in the world. There is such a variety of species that is estimated that most of them still undiscovered. Peru is the second country after Colombia in terms of number of bird species in the world and third in terms of mammals, including 44% and 63% respectively living in the Peruvian Amazon.

Departments: Amazonas, San Martin, Loreto, Ucayali, Madre de Dios.

Gastronomy

Peruvian cuisine is considered one of the most varied and original in the world, Peru has 491 different dishes, that is why the country has the Guinness record for the largest variety and diversity of dishes in the world, it has registered more than two thousand different soups only the coast and more than 250 traditional desserts nationwide. Among the cuisines of Peru include Creole cuisine (northern and Lima), the seafood, the Andean cuisine, the Chifa and the Amazon cuisine. Perhaps the most representative dishes of Peru are the ceviche on the coast, pachamanca in the mountains and the juane in the jungle. In terms of drinks are pisco, the chicha de jora which is a drink of the mountain made from corn. In the jungle is prepared masato, this is an indigenous liquor made from fermented cassava.

Tourism

Peru is a country with varied attractions because of their culture, regions, history and cuisine. The tourism in Peru is the third largest industry in the nation, behind fishing and mining. Tourism is directed towards archeological monuments, it has more than one hundred thousand archaeological sites, ecotourism in the Peruvian Amazon, cultural tourism in colonial cities, gastronomic tourism, adventure tourism and beach tourism. According to a study by the Peruvian government, the level of satisfaction of tourists after visiting Peru is 94%. It is the fastest growing industry in Peru, grew annually at a rate of 25% in the last five years, with the highest growth rate of any country in South America.

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